Monday, June 8, 2020

ID Models Essay - 1100 Words

ID Models (Essay Sample) Content: ID ModelsNameUniversityID ModelsID Models with IllustrationsInstructional design (ID) is a systematic process of putting learning elements and outcomes together to form a curriculum that supports sustainable retention of skills during educational and training programs (Akbulut, 2007). The traditional instructional process allowed the instructor to use texts to impart skills to the learner. The learner was tested to recall text content and apply it to pass the class examinations. The contemporary world of education has adopted a systematic approach to instructional design that allows seamless linkages of all systems, including the instructor, learner, materials, learning environment, and the educational outcome (Akbulut, 2007).The best two models of Instruction systematic design are the Dick and Carey Model and ADDIE Model. The illustration below depicts the Dick and Carey Model. Figure 1. The Dick and Carey Model (Dick, Carey, Carey, 2009). The acronym ADDIE stands for Analyze needs, Design instruction, Develop materials, Implement activities, and Evaluate learners progress and instructional effectiveness, describing the five phases of this instructional design model. The figure below is an illustration of ADDIE model.Figure 2. The ADDIE modelComparing and Contrasting the Two ModelsID variablesADDIEThe Dick and Carey modelSimilaritiesAnalysisAnalyze learners and determine learning objectives.Budget analysis.Mention the due date of every programs outcome.Conduct instructional analysis to assess learning goals.Identify instructional goal.Analyze learners and context.Write performance objectives (Dick, Carey, Carey, 2009).DesignSelect best learning environment.Write instructional objectives.Select approach to learning program.Design course content.Revise instructions.Develop assessment instructions (Akbulut, 2007).DevelopmentCreate instructional design.Create a supportive social interaction environment that encourages learners t o participate.Develop instructional strategy.Develop and choose instructional materials (Akbulut, 2007).Implementation Make materials available.Maintain course materials.Define communication plans to counter ambiguity in materials.Plan and direct evaluation on the semantic level.DesignPrepare assessment criterion and inform students.Design a fair evaluation procedure.Test competency through tests, class participation and test research skills. Design and conduct summative evaluation of instruction.DifferencesADDIE is a brief and straightforward ID model. This model is cheaper to apply since it has five straightforward steps.The instructor can jump a step without altering the quality of ID.This model is comprehensive and extensive.The model is costly to apply and involves many specify instructional tasks. The instructor must proceed from one step to the next and cannot proceed without having completed the previous one. Using the Models in the Design of My Own Instruct ionThe ID models of ADDIE and Dick and Carey present systems of teaching that adapt traditional instructional systems consisting of the instructor, textbooks, and the learner but from a systematic point of view. Five elements of ADDIE model enumerated above give a simple foundation for the development and implementation of instructional design. (Dooley, Lindner, Dooley, 2003). The instructor primarily provides information and the student must understand the content and apply skills learned to find solutions to life challenges. ADDIE model provides the base for the development and application of the Dick and the Carey Model in developing my own instructional design.ADDIE Model provides five fundamental steps that analyze and check educational programs. ADDIEs first step of analysis is compared to Dick and Carey Models first step of assessing needs to find learning goals. This is a student-centered attitude that allows the instructor to consult with students on the best learning stra tegies pegged on the expected outcome (Dick, Carey, Carey, 2009). The creation of clear learning statements that shows the instructional goal is core to defining the goals of implementing the instructional design (ID) process (Dooley, Lindner, Dooley, 2003). Contemporary job skill requirements and new research trends are considered when assessinglearning goals. Student suggestions are easily included in the ADDIEs analysis step that conducts an instructional analysis to note learners needs and context before writing performance activities.The Dick and Carey Model uses a linear connected system that allows all components of instructional design to fit together seamlessly as seen from Figure 1. On the other hand, ADDIE Model is limited to the linear Figure 2 which means that the previous component only affects the successive one. Therefore, the Dick and Carey Model is more flexible in offering a collaborative instructional design that includes the instructors and learners views (Doo ley, Lindner, Dooley, 2003). The model offers the instructor and the learners a chance to find their media activities and promotes a social learning environment that supports the use of technology (Rourke Anderson, 2002). This means that the Dick and Carey Model develops an elaborate mechanism that provides functionality through evaluation, analysis, and customized studies that support a systematic view of the learning process.The instructional designs objective is to enhance learners to gain skills. The Dick and Carey Model promises to offer a straightforward component in providing instructional objectives input by developing a delivery system that considers the learners expectations in the job market (Fox Doherty, 2012). Application of technology is a definitive course delivery system that increases efficiency of the Dick and Carey Model. This model is effective in the delivery of the curriculum because of its collaborative nature that relies on group activities between the ins tructor and the learners (Rourke Anderson, 2002). ADDIE Model is very easy to apply. However, ADDIE lacks a clear guidance on the course delivery processes which means that the instructor is the only one to decide whether to include efficient media and online learning aids and materials (Rourke Anderson, 2002). On the other part, the Dick and Carey Model gives the instructor and the learners a chance to take part in deciding on the best learning activities.In conclusion, the Dick and Carey Model is a superior ID model that allows the instructor to con...

Sunday, May 17, 2020

The Autism Spectrum Reflection Paper - 1708 Words

The Asperger’s Disorder in the Autism Spectrum: Reflection Paper Psychology 340: Fundamentals of Psychopathology Marie-Eve Lefebvre Concordia University The definition of Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) says: â€Å"[†¦] considered to be the result of some structural differences in the brain that are usually evident at birth or become apparent as the child begins to develop.† (Butcher, Mineka, Hooley, Taylor Antony, 2010) I am sure that modern discovery related to the development of the brain makes it easier to diagnose children with autism disorders today. What about adults that did not get this chance? In the 1970s, such discovery did not exist and autism was not known and classified as a disorder until 1994†¦show more content†¦This could probably explain why my father had a lot of issues about accepting himself and not being ashamed of who he was. In this sense, the idea that my father could have had a mental issue was not something possible and acceptable in his family. Another thing that must be kept in mind is that, in the 1970s, seeking help for mental health was not as accepted than today, because of the importance of stigma. This stigma, which means the negative stereotype that can be followed by discrimination (CMHA, 2015), was something very common for my father. This resulted in many depressive periods experienced by my father, since he felt ashamed of himself for being mentally ill. After he got diagnosed with bipolar disorder in 2005 (when he was, in fact, suffering from the Asperger Syndrome), he suffered from a lot of rejection in his career. As described by Ruby Wax in her TED talk (2012), people do not see mental disorder as an illness like they would with a physical disability, but as something to fear. When he got diagnosed with Asperger disorder in 2010, he was considered as invalid to work. Not only he could not work at all, but he was also financially under compensated, which led to a precarious financial situation. Evidently, this decision only increased the intensity and duration of his depressive periods, since he became anxious about money and moreShow MoreRelatedMental Disorders And Disabilities Among Low-Income Children Case Study1029 Words   |  5 Pagesbut not the quality of the health care received. Thus behavioral and educational therapies are under reported. Carr, T., Lord, C.(2016). A Pilot Study Promoting Participation Of Families With Limited Resources In Early Autism Intervention, Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders,25(1), 87-96.doi:10.106/j.rasd.2016.02.003 The journal article investigates if the promotion of participation amongst low-income and low educated families to get their children recourse for ASD. The study focuses onRead MoreEssay On The Movie Rain Man1315 Words   |  6 PagesAbstract This paper will show how in the movie Rain Man, an adult man acts with high functioning autism. 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NotRead MoreNeurological-Based Behavior1143 Words   |  5 Pagesï » ¿Reflection Paper #1 Topic: Neurological-Based Atypical Behavior (NBB) For my reflection paper, I chose to give my opinion on the NBB’s, short for â€Å"Neurological-Based Atypical Behaviors†. NBB is defined as a collection of deeds or the behavior of children that happen outside the usual boundaries of self control. According to Dr. Paula Cook, specialist in teaching students with NBB, about 10 percent of students cannot control what they say or do reliably. They are foundRead MoreAutism And What It Is All About2623 Words   |  11 PagesI decided to write about Autism and what it is all about. It is something that is on the rise and that is a huge part of the ECE world. Autism is a lifelong, developmental disability that affects how a person communicates and relates to other people, and how they experience the world around them. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and autism are both of the terms used for disorders of brain development. These disorders are different; there are different degrees to this brain development, like problemsRead MoreAutism Spectrum Disorder ( Asd )2826 Words   |  12 PagesIt has been observed that individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have a harder time engaging in social connections, which can be initially displayed by lack of eye contact. There are many va riables in severity on the autism spectrum as well as many therapies and trainings that can assist individuals with ASD to improve their skills of social communication and understanding. The purpose of this study is to have individuals with ASD view a variety of animal and human faces to determine ifRead More547 Marie Jevon1 Understand How The4585 Words   |  19 Pagesabout autism reflect the complexity of autistic spectrum conditions Since it first identified as a distinct disorder by Leo Kanner (1943), autism studies continued in order to explain its causes. Many theories and clinical studies evolved. However, none of them seems to be conclusive. Although it was interchangeably considered as part of schizophrenia, recently it is defined as a distinct disorder that has its own characteristics. The field of management is still challenging. In this paper, I am

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Gay Marriage Moral or Immoral - 2203 Words

RUNNING HEAD: GAY MARRIAGE 1 Gay Marriage Moral or Immoral? William Hadley SOC 1120: Intro. to Ethics and Social Responsibility Christine Villasenor July 11, 2011 Ashford University GAY MARRIAGE 2 Marriage has been an important institution throughout the centuries. In the United States, most adults are married and live with their spouses. (Marriage. (2010) Credoreference.com) It is common knowledge, however, that the number of â€Å"traditional† marriages have declined in the last century and same sex marriages have increased over the last few decades.†¦show more content†¦Many states will not GAY MARRIAGE 4 allow marriage between close relatives, such as first cousins, and no states allow marriage between parents and their children or marriage between two siblings. There are eleven states that recognize â€Å"common-law† marriages, which is a situation when two people live together as man and wife and present themselves as such in the public eye. Same-sex marriages have occurred throughout history however until 1995 were considered â€Å"universally unacceptable†. (Same-sex Marriage. (2010) Credoreference.com) When did same-sex marriage become an issue? First, we have to go back to the Gay Rights Movement that dates back to as early as December 31, 1966. (Thomas, J. (2011) Slate.com) On this date, about one dozen policemen dressed in street clothes were present at a bar named the Black Cat, a bar located in Los Angeles. At the stroke of midnig ht, the â€Å"gay† men in the bar celebrated with the â€Å"traditional† New Year’s Eve kiss and they were attacked by the policemen and hit in the head with clubs. (Thomas, J. (2011) Slate.com) According to Slate.com, sixteen patrons in the bar were arrested and the bar owner was also arrested along with three others that came to her defense. Lillian Faderman and Stuart Timmons’ book, Gay L.A. stated that one of the bartenders suffered a ruptured spleenShow MoreRelatedWhy Shouldn’t Tommy and Jim Have Sex? An Essay by John Corvino859 Words   |  4 Pagesargument that gay sex is not â€Å"unnatural† in any moral way. However, this argument is easy to critique when considering opposition from natural law theorists, democracy, and other perspective ideas. In order for Corvino to make his position that gay sex is not morally â€Å"unnatural†, he must first respond to several arguments. Many natural law theorists believe that sexual organs should only be used for three distinct purposes; reproduction, making a home for children through marriage, and emotionalRead MoreEssay on The Bond of Marriage1166 Words   |  5 PagesThe Bond of Marriage The argument to allow gay couples to marry has been a debatable topic for many years. The authors, Andrew Sullivan and William Bennett have conflicting beliefs to whether gay marriages should be permissible. Sullivan expresses his opinion of the right gays have to marry in his article â€Å"Let Gays Marry.† Bennett retaliates with his own article opposing gay marriage. His article â€Å"Leave Marriage Alone,† relates his view that same-sex marriage is wrong and unethical.Read MoreThe Moral View Of Homosexuality1708 Words   |  7 Pagesconsidered moral or immoral has been an argument for as long as humans have been in existence. This argument has been viewed by philological experts and people all over the world for centuries and it continues to be a major argument today. The moral view of homosexuality has many arguments, but the arguments that are going to be mentioned are the normative ethics argument, the argument on why the moral law is true when it comes t o homosexuality, and why homosexuality should be viewed immoral in today’sRead MoreReligion And The Civil Rights Movement954 Words   |  4 Pagesobtain gay and civil rights has been directly influenced by religion, either in a positive or negative way. More specifically, religion has served as a disadvantage to achieving gay rights and an advantage to those that participated in the civil rights movement. Contrary to the recent successes of the gay rights movement, there have been a lot of obstacles along the way and most of them have been due to religious beliefs and practices. Religion opposes gay rights, especially gay marriage on the basisRead MoreThe Issue Of Gay Marriages1028 Words   |  5 PagesSeptember 2, 2015 The Issue Of Gay Marriages Through The Eyes Of Sociologists Gay marriages have been an ongoing event in the United States for many years. It was not until June 26, 2015 when gay marriage was legalized for all states with a five to four ratio. With gay marriage being legalized, there became many controversies in the nation. The most recent controversy was when a Kentucky county clerk was jailed after defying a federal court order to issue marriage licenses to a same-sex couple. SheRead MoreTaking a Look at Same-Sex Marriages1029 Words   |  4 PagesSame-Sex Marriages Over the years, the levels of acceptance to same-sex marriages have risen gradually. On large scale, much of this ‘acceptance’ comes in the form of tolerance. It is now perfectly bearable for heterosexuals to turn show approval of their relatives or their friends procuring gay marriages. After all, it is much easier to put aside one’s distaste to this occurrence, than face the vicious accusations that would follow if they said a word that in the least betray their objections.Read Moremoral or immorral Essay456 Words   |  2 PagesMoral or Immorral #61656; People consider nature morality. They associate nature as being pure and good. Unnatural as being corrupt and evil. #61656; Morality is based on spiritual and personal beliefs and on accepted standards for the respect of others. #61656; Good judgment should not equate whats common with whats right or good. Nonconformity is not the same as immoral. #61656; Some people confuse what is with what they think ought to be. #61656; Nature is a moral. Not moralRead MoreWhy Gay Marriage Should Be Banned in Georgia1100 Words   |  5 Pages Why Gay Marriage Should Be Banned in Georgia Georgia has always been a state where family values and community issues are important in our society. Many people who live in the southern United States have always been for conservative and or republican values. This typically involves a christan background, and therefore, the people of Georgia should not support gay marriage because most people are Christians. Also there is a code of natural law that must beRead MoreGay Marriage Should Be Legal1159 Words   |  5 PagesConstitutional Amendment, which puts a ban on gay marriage. This amendment entitles to equal rights to the gay community, ending toleration of discrimination in jobs, rights protecting gays from hate crimes,rights allowing advancement in government. However, the concept of gay marriage is still not considered a right the American people should extend to homosexuals. II. The vast majority of opponents believe marriage should be between one woman and one man, meaning marriage should be between members of theRead MoreHomosexuals Have Every Right to Marry686 Words   |  3 PagesHomosexuals have every right to marry. Marriage is a basic human right, if straights can marry in all states then so should gays. Gay rights of all kinds are starting to become increasingly protected. â€Å"In every courthouse, in every proceeding and in every place where a member of the department of justice, stands on behalf of the United States, they will strive to ensure that same-sex marriages receive the same privileges, protections and rights as opposite-sex marriages, under federal law.† -Attorney General

Lugbara of Uganda free essay sample

A review of the ethnographic book Lugbara of Uganda by John Middleton and a history of Uganda. This paper examines the book Lugbara of Uganda by well-known ethnographer Middleton, which presents observations of the different African cultures and some unexplored areas. It includes a case study of the Lugbara people of Uganda with a description of the society and the complex sociopolitical system. The paper provides a summary of the history of Uganda and investigates the current conditions and issues of these cultures. The book Lugbara of Uganda is written by one of the most famous and well-known ethnographers who have worked on different African cultures and have explored different untouched avenues of the African world. This book is a result of about 30 years of research and writing by the author as well as his colleagues and peers. In this book, Middleton has sketched the picture of the specific ethnic group of Uganda i. We will write a custom essay sample on Lugbara of Uganda or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page e. the Lubgara people. In this case study he has given a sensitive description of how this society, composed of a complex sociopolitical system and which was once dependent on such practices as dispute and warfare to gain control of the society and to keep the competition alive, has now become a civilization of refugees who are continuous victims of harassment.

Monday, April 20, 2020

Slavery And Evolution Of Cherokee Essays - Cherokee Nation, Cherokee

Slavery And Evolution Of Cherokee In this well-written book by Theda Perdue, he discloses much of the history of slavery among the Cherokee people and their evolution during this 326 year period. He begins with their abduction by the Spanish. Perdue gives a remarkable comparison of the two very different views of slavery experienced by two very different cultures. He states that even though the Spaniards captured the Cherokee for use as slaves, they misunderstood that the Indians had an egalitarian social system. The Cherokee system also included distribution of power and labor. Thus, the Cherokee accepted their slavery as a natural part of domination by the strongest. The Cherokee misunderstood the Spanish form of slavery which was one of cruelty. During the first years of contact with the Europeans and the African people, the Cherokee were only peacefully inquisitive. The Indians need for European trading goods grew. Because of this need, the Cherokee began waging war to supply slaves to the Europeans in return. Thus, corrupting the Cherokee lifestyle. Theda Perdue tells of the destruction of tribal ways due to the embracing of a belief foreign to the Native American way of life. According to Perdue, the U.S. government, after the Civil War, decided that cheating the Cherokee for any reason was justified because of genuine or imagined betrayals.

Sunday, March 15, 2020

Transgenic Rice Plants Essays - Molecular Biology, Free Essays

Transgenic Rice Plants Essays - Molecular Biology, Free Essays Transgenic Rice Plants The following form contents were entered on 15th Apr 97 Date = 15 Apr 97 23:58:50 subject name = Sarah Lenhardt email = [emailprotected] publish = yes subject = Biology title = Transgenic Rice Plants Transgenic Rice Plants that Express Insect Resistance For centuries, rice has been one of the most important staple crops for the world and it now currently feeds more than two billion people, mostly living in developing countries. Rice is the major food source of Japan and China and it enjoys a long history of use in both cultures. In 1994, worldwide rice production peaked at 530 million metric tons. Yet, more than 200 million tons of rice are lost each year to biotic stresses such as disease and insect infestation. This extreme loss of crop is estimated to cost at least several billion dollars per year and heavy losses often leave third world countries desperate for their staple food. Therefore, measures must be taken to decrease the amount of crop loss and increase yields that could be used to feed the populations of the world. One method to increase rice crop yields is the institution of transgenic rice plants that express insect resistance genes. The two major ways to accomplish insect resistance in rice are the introduction of the potato proteinas e inhibitor II gene or the introduction of the Bacillus thuringiensis toxin gene into the plant's genome. Other experimental methods of instituting insect resistance include the use of the arcelin gene, the snowdrop lectin/GNA (galanthus nivallis agglutinin) protein, and phloem specific promoters and finally the SBTI gene. The introduction of the potato proteinase inhibitor II gene, or PINII, marks the first time that useful genes were successfully transferred from a dicotyledonus plant to a monocotyledonous plant. Whenever the plant is wounded by insects, the PINII gene produces a protein that interferes with the insect's digestive processes. These protein inhibitors can be detrimental to the growth and development of a wide range of insects that attack rice plants and result in insects eating less of the plant material. Proteinase inhibitors are of particular interest because they are part of the rice plant's natural defense system against insects. They are also beneficial because they are inactivated by cooking and therefore pose no environmental or health hazards to the human consumption of PINII treated rice. In order to produce fertile transgenic rice plants, plasmid pTW was used, coupled with the pin 2 promoter and the inserted rice actin intron, act 1. The combination of the pin 2 promoter and act 1 intron has been shown to produce a high level, wound inducible expression of foreign genes in transgenic plants. This was useful for delivering the protein inhibitor to insects which eat plant material. The selectable marker in this trial was the bacterial phosphinothricin acetyl transferase gene (bar) which was linked to the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter. Next the plasmid pTW was injected into cell cultures of Japonica rice using the BiolisticTM particle delivery system. The BiolisticTM system proceeds as follows: Immature embryos and embryonic calli of six rice materials were bombarded with tungsten particles coated with DNA of two plasmids containing the appropriate genes. The plant materials showed high frequency of expression of genes when stained with X-Gluc. The number of blue or transgenic units was approximately 1,000. After one week, the transgenic cells were transferred onto selection medium containing hygromycin B. After two weeks, fresh cell cultures could be seen on bombarded tissue. Some cultures were white and some cultures were blue. Isolated cell cultures were further selected on hygromycin resistance. However, no control plant survived. Then twenty plates of cells were bombarded with the PINII gene, from which over two hundred plants were regenerated and grown in a greenhouse. After their growth, they were tested for PINII gene using DNA blot hybridization and 73% of the plants were found to be transgenic. DNA blot hybridization is the process by which DNA from each sample was digested by a suitable restriction endonuclease, separated on an aragose gel, transferred to a nylon membrane, and then finally hybridized with the 1.5 kb DNA fragment with pin 2 coding and 3' regions as the probe. The results also indicate that the PINII gene was inherited by offspring of the original transgenic line, that the PINII levels were higher among many of the offspring and that when PINII levels rose in wounded leaves, the PINII levels in unwounded leaves also rose. However, the PINII gene is not 100% effective in eliminating insects because it does not produce an insect toxin, just a proteinase inhibitor. Yet, greater insect

Friday, February 28, 2020

Outline marketing plan for the next year for Atlantic Quench 03059 Essay

Outline marketing plan for the next year for Atlantic Quench 03059 - Essay Example With a strong brand and market experience, it is expected that Atlantic Quench Cranberries Inc. will have its sales increase by 20% through the current marketing plan. In order to carry out macro environment analysis for Atlantic Quench Cranberries (AQC, 2015), this plan will use Political, Economic, Sociological, Technological, Environmental and Legal (PESTEL) analysis, concentrating on the forces that are most relevant to the AQC company in order to evaluate any possible strengths, weaknesses opportunities and threats.To achieve the objectives, the company seeks to increase more funds towards promotion and research and development (R&D) (De and Meyer 2014). We plan to use positioning strategies, price discrimination and use of social media to create product awareness among the consumers. UK has majority of its population being above the ages of 35. This provides a potential market for the product. They also have a culture that consumes products that have been locally produced. This provides great potential for AQC to access more consumers, who are no longer loyal to carbonated soft drinks and are seeking for products that can add the value by offering more suitable, healthier beverages. Similarly, the countries have a steady growth rate thus providing for a steady market (Johnson, Scholes and Whittington 2005). 7 With the increasing levels of globalization resulting from liberalization of markets, efficient flow of information and integration of economies, the level of competition in the local and international market has increased tremendously. This has resulted from the entry of multinational companies which have a huge financial base to segment the market, attract the loyalty of the customers, and position the products strategically in the market. This has made it hard for the other companies to penetrate the market. The report by the Mintel indicates