Thursday, January 23, 2020

America Needs Greater Voter Participation Essay example -- Politics Po

Government and Politics – America Needs Greater Voter Participation We may live in a country that encourages voting in political elections, yet the level of voter turnout in America is relatively small and continues to decline. Compared to other countries with democratic governments, the United States falls very near the bottom of the list with its percentage of voter participation. One explanation for this disturbing phenomenon states that the American system requires more effort from voters, asking them to participate in â€Å"more elections for more levels of government with more elective offices at each level than any other country in the world† (Schudson 159). In most other democracies, the citizens may be asked to vote only 2 or 3 times over a 4-year period (Edwards, Wattenberg, and Lineberry 246). American voters feel overwhelmed by all that is asked of them. The diverse and numerous elections held in the United States, especially at the state and local levels try the attention spans of voters and decrease their willingness or desire to participate. Reading the local election ballot and trying to determine the actual function of the various obscure local offices such as county clerk, court clerk or register of deeds can be a daunting task. Extracting real meaning from the political jargon used in wording local propositions can also be a challenge and source of discouragement (Schudson 156). Dr. Bill Lyons, of the University of Tennessee, said this of Tennessee state and local elections: â€Å"In Tennessee, we also have a very long ballot with a lot of constitutional offices and we have an awful lot of elections. I think that’s bad because it unnecessarily splits the time and attention of voters† (Flessner 2). Ame... ...n Perspective Sections on pages 208 and 245. Michael Schudson, â€Å"Voting Rites: Why We Need a New Concept of Citizenship†. Allan Cigler and Burdett Loomis, American Politics: Classic and Contemporary Readings, 4th ed. Boston: Houghton Miflin Company, 1999, pp. 156-164. Project Vote Smart, â€Å"PVS General Population and Youth Survey†, Department of Political Science at OSU,, 1999, p. 5. Robert D. Putnam, â€Å"Bowling Alone: America’s Declining Social Capital†. Allan Cigler and Burdett Loomis, American Politics: Classic and Contemporary Readings, 4th ed. Boston: Houghton Miflin Company, 1999, pp. 165-175. Ruy Teixeira, â€Å"Voter Turnout in America: Ten Myths†. Allan Cigler and Burdett Loomis, American Politics: Classic and Contemporary Readings, 4th ed. Boston: Houghton Miflin Company, 1999, pp. 149-155.

Wednesday, January 15, 2020

Equality and Human Rights Commissio Essay

Effective partnership working is vital in a childcare setting because we have a professional responsibility to support better outcomes for the children and their families. There are two core principle features that lead towards successful partnership working. These principles are integration and co-production. For successful integration to take place, crucial steps are taken by local systems that bring services together that share important information. The information that is shared promotes effective common understanding of the needs of the children and their families in which an assessment and referrals can be made. Professionals working across the sector with recognised experts and cross-department government policy makers are known as Co-production partners. This type of partnership working is effective when all partners are all active in working alongside one another, sharing expertise and knowledge with other partners and colleagues. Outcome 1.2 Explain the importance of partnership working with: †¢ Colleagues In child care, partnership working and working as part of a team is important in caring for the children, and this comes through having mutual respect for one another. It is vitally important that creating a positive relationship with other colleagues has a constructive effect on the working and caring environment for the children to be part of. Each colleague will have their own ideas, suggestions and concerns regarding either the children they work with or the working environment. What is important is that we listen and acknowledge this and provide feedback. As a team we should encourage open and honest communication and any staff issues should be dealt with directly and promptly with one another without feeling intimidated. Offering support and advice as a child care officer is essential for the child as well as colleagues. There are occasions when staff members will need the support, for example when they are struggling dealing with a behavioural challenge, parents or other agencies. The extra help will get the situation under control. As a whole, all the knowledge and skills that an individual can bring to working with colleagues are important. It is crucial to collaborate these with one another in such environments and circumstances while working together. †¢Ã‚  Other professionals/Others As a childcare officer I work alongside many other professionals, such as social workers, youth workers and the police. It’s important that I build a relationship with these external agencies for the sake of any child under my responsibility. Where I work, I am fully aware of any issues that a child has in the residential setting. Without the assistance of other professionals outside the residential setting, I wouldn’t be aware of issues that are cause for concern for a child. Therefore, it’s crucial that having a  good relationship with other professionals that I can liaise with to ensure me that I’m fully aware of any external issues that may have an effect for a child under my care. Outcome 1.3 Analyse how partnership working delivers better outcome. Partnership does seem to be an important mechanism for delivering better services and for tackling complex issues. However partnership working takes much effort and input from staff members to make effective and if the  concept loses legitimacy there is a danger that people will begin to disengage from this process. The outcomes of partnership working are imperative and it is for this reason that we need to be clear about what kind of working relationships can produce what kind of impacts for whom, when and why. [Glasby,2009] Outcome 1.4 Explain how to overcome barriers to partnership working. There are a number of barriers that can arise while working in partnership. It is how we deal with them in the first place can be vital to resolving a problem before it occurs. Dishonesty and trust can be an issue when working with other agencies. By accepting the challenges each other face and through honesty and having open communication we can overcome barriers such as dishonesty. Acknowledge each other’s expertise is key for a good working relationship. If there was a problem that an area of expertise was needed, then having worked in partnership with another agency before can overcome this. If respect isn’t shared then it will have a knock on effect onto all partnership working. Respect is commonly passed between everybody through all walks of life. While working with other partners and agencies then having respect for one another is a bond that needs to be strong. Ultimately the end goal for all parties involved is the welfare of the child, and each and everyone must respect that. Overall, honesty, trust, acknowledgement and respect all come through and are gained through communication. Once communication is broken down then problems arise from all different partnerships. All these barriers can be overcome through effective communication and keeping all communication channels open. This primarily will improve partnership working. Also you can achieve greater equality, mutual respect and satisfaction, as well as more efficient use of everyone’s time. You can create a positive, empowering and supportive relationship with everyone working together towards the same goals. Explain own role and responsibilities in working with colleagues. I am a child care officer working in a residential school. The childcare team consists of twelve other officers and three of whom are senior childcare officers. The residential school has a school-end and a dormitory-end. All childcare officers work in partnership with the teachers as the school run a 24hour curriculum. I am in charge of the middle dormitory that has five boys aged between 13 and 15, as well as two other child care officer. My main responsibilities are to ensure that the children are safe and cared for in the living environment, and that their needs are met emotionally, physically and mentally. Working as a team with colleagues and partners is important as a childcare officer. As part of a team we are able to pass forward any information that may affect any children under our responsibility or any changes or issues around surrounding the team. The role of a childcare officer can be emotionally draining and it’s vital that I support the staff as well as the behavioural issues the children deal with. As whole the childcare team all support one another and it has a positive effect on the children welfare. Outcome 2.2 Develop and agree common objectives when working with colleagues. Each child care officer has key children that he/she are responsible for. To develop and agree on common objectives I meet with the colleagues once a week to discuss Individual Developmental Plans (IDP) for the key children. The IDP is a meeting to agree on a plan on issues and concerns for the child to work on and develop through each week and school term. All the staff that work closely with the same child have the same objectives, and this is inhouse partnership working along with one another. This approach taken by staff members can have a reflective impact upon a child. Outcome 2.3 Evaluate own working relationship with colleagues. I believe that my working relationship with other colleagues is incredibly positive. One of key attributes is that I communicate well at all times. Through effective communication I feel that it increase my confidence and therefore have a positive impact upon the children under my supervision. If the children can see positive behaviour then they tend to follow and I need to lead by example for this to occur. The childcare team are all very supportive to one another and I feel comfortable asking for advice or guidance when an issue or occasion arises that I feel may need better expertise. Also I feel that my colleagues know that they could without doubt ask me for any support that they feel they may need and I would help them. I am always looking to improve as a professional and I take great interest of colleagues that have been in the environment for many more years than me. Therefore as well as theoretical  learning I also enjoy observational learning through observing my colleagues  on a day to day basis. Outcome 2.4 Deal constructively with any conflict that may arise with colleagues. Personal likes and dislikes must be put aside when working as a childcare officer because your main priority is the welfare of the children. Having the ability to communicate constructively at all times with other colleagues is essential and if there are any issues that need be resolved, then we are able to do so through effective communication. If there any conflicts that are cause of concern and needed higher authority then our line manager is available to discuss matters. Also in conclusion to this, any issues arising can be brought forward in a staff meeting held at the end of each week. Issues or concerns should be dealt with immediately so that the team morale and effective team work can proceed. Outcome 3.1 Explain own role and responsibilities in working with other professionals. The roles and responsibilities are determined by which other professional I work alongside. Each child (depending on the situation) has different working partnership. One of my roles is the responsibility for a child’s health and well being. On many occasions I must take the child to the doctors or dentist. I make appointments with these fellow professionals as well as follow up appointments if needed. I also work with professionals such as Psychologists, Social Workers, Foster Parents, Youth Offending Team and Youth Workers. I often meet with these in support of the children I am a key worker for. Although at times having these meeting are emotionally difficult for the child, all the professionals are working together to develop the child’s present and future lives. Outcome 3.2 Develop procedures for effective working relationships with other professionals. Cross Reference with 4.2 Outcome 3.3 Agree common objectives when working with other professionals within the boundaries of own role and responsibilities. Observation of staff de-brief meeting. Minutes from meeting. Outcome 3.4 Evaluate procedures for working with other professionals. The school and local authority have procedures put in place when working with many professionals that cover a number of different situations. These procedures are to protect the child and yourself. Looked After Child (LAC) Review is a procedure which all professionals, carers/parents, and the child work in partnership. This partnership allows all parties including the child the opportunity to give their thoughts and opinions on current issues. It is important that I keep good professional relationships with all that are involved as well as support the child at all times. Outcome 3.5 Deal constructively with any conflict that may arise with other professionals. As discussed in outcome 1.1, integration is really important when working together with other professionals. One occasion in the last few months I had to deal with a conflict with a foster family and a child regarding a school issue. This caused the child to rebel against the foster family as well as the child being aggressive and threatening. I dealt with the issue constructively by having the family acknowledge the issues that miss informing other professionals can cause problems. I then had to educate and rationalize with the parents and child to resolving the issue. Having all parties accept that resolving conflict is often a necessary process to  achieve positive or desired outcomes, and then we can learn and move forward. Outcome 4.1 Analyse the importance of working in partnerships with others. Ensuring the safety of the child and all partnerships working in childcare is important. On occasions we deal with children that break the law and the police need to be informed. When the nature of the crime is explained to the police, we also need to exchange information regarding the child involved. Through the exchange of information and the other agencies that the police have at their disposal, the potential outcome can meet the individual needs of the child. This is an example that specific expertise of others was needed to resolve an issue that was other than just breaking the law. The exchange of information, further working partnerships and meeting the individual needs can result in consistency of care for the child. Outcome 4.2 Develop procedures for effective working relationships with others. When a child absconds from the residential school grounds, a procedure has put in place to warrant the safety of the child. The first call is to the senior staff and they are informed immediately that a child has absconded. The school then phone the police to help in the search of the child. Also the school work in partnership with the parents and foster parents to ensure that the issue is explained correctly, what is being done and the outcome of the event. Outcome 4.3 Agree common objectives when working with others within the boundaries of own role and responsibilities. Observation Outcome 4.4 Evaluate procedures for working with others. Cross reference with 3.4 Outcome 4.5 Deal constructively with any conflict that may arise with others. Observation Bibliography †¢Ã‚[Accessed:21/07/2013] †¢Ã‚  Equality and Human Rights Commission (2010), Policy, Working Better Childcare Matters: improving choices and chances for parents and children †¢Ã‚  Glasby.J.,Dickinson.H.,(2009) International Perspectives on Health And Social Care: Partnership working in action. p162.

Tuesday, January 7, 2020

The Transformation Of Class And Occupational Structure Of...

At this time, the descendant of Mathew Maule, Holgrave, lives with Hepzibah in the decrepit mansion. However, unlike Hepzibah, Maule is healthy and thriving during the industrialization. With the social change of the nineteenth century, Maule is given the opportunity to become more than the past would have ever allowed his ancestors, â€Å"[who were] generally poverty-stricken; always plebeian and obscure; working with unsuccessful diligence at handicrafts† (Hawthorne 15). In Colonel Pyncheon’s time, the Maule family was in the poor â€Å"plebian† class and easily erasable by the Colonel. Now Maule not only lives in the Pyncheon mansion but is prospering better than Hepzibah. Holgrave’s occupation is also different from his ancestor’s carpentry work. He is a daguerreotypist; the first profession to successfully create photographs. Melanie Archer, author of Class Formation in Nineteenth-century America: The Case of the Middle Class, states that â₠¬Å"in the nineteenth century†¦The development of the middle class is rooted in the transformation of class and occupational structure† (3). Holgrave’s profession coincides with his and the emerging middle class’s progressive personalities and drive. Hawthorne utilizes the Maule family to contrast the aristocratic notions, to demonstrate the ever evolving America within the Maule family and to illustrate that, â€Å"the middle class comprised not only a significant segment of the nineteenth-century urban population, but that it was influential inShow MoreRelatedThe Theory Of Crime Theory1329 Words   |  6 Pageslower class status are pressured into crime when they are prevented from achieving cultural goals like monetary success or middle-class status through legitimate status. Among the classic strain theorists the best known is Robert K. Merton. Merton rejected the notion still popular at the time of his writing that deviant motivations were rooted in the biology or psychology of the individual, holding instead that deviance and criminality were social products: certain phases of social structure generateRead MoreDomestic Violence And Sexual Relationships901 Words   |  4 Pagesexperience domestic violence within their homes; but the question is not how can we stop it, but why does it happen? Finding out the what causes spousal violence, will likely lead us to the answer of how to prevent it from happening. In using latent class analysis and logistic regression techniques we can find the distinct patterns of male or female domination. Studying two separate articles â€Å"Bringing Home the Bacon† and â€Å"Gender, Work and Inmate Violence†, I was able to integrate their findings to askRead MoreSocio-Cultural Development17197 Words   |  69 PagesIntroduction: what is the social and cultural environment? 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Pakulski and Waters argued that social is dead, due to changes in economic and social structures along with adaptions in social identity and belongingRead MorePakulski and Waters2272 Words   |  10 Pageswhen they say class is dead? In the chapter ‘The Shifting Sands of Structure’, Pakulski and Waters are talking about the declining relevance of Marxist class theory in the evaluation of modern capitalism. â€Å"Actual social developments have defined both predications of progressive polarisation and conflict and the emancipatory promise of social revolution† (Pakulski and Waters 1996:28). The perceived ‘death of class’ according to this chapter is due the economic reductionism of class theory in PoliticalRead MoreThe Impact Of Information Technology On Society1264 Words   |  6 Pages His 17 predictions can be grouped into three overarching themes shown in Table 1.1 in Masada’s article (1990). The three patterns are Innovational Technology, Socioeconomic Structure, and Values. 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The melting pot theoryRead MoreKarl Marx s Theories Of History And The Theory Of Human Nature Essay1714 Words   |  7 PagesKarl Marx was a nineteenth century philosopher, born in Trier, Prussia (Germany) in 1818 to a middle class family and later died in 1883. Karl Marx’s philosophies on society, politics and economics is collectively understood as Marxism. He was a materialist and an atheist who had a profound impact on the world of intellectual thought. This paper will aim to discuss and determine with reference to Marx’s deterministic theory of history and the theory of human nature, if human beings are essentiallyRead MoreRacial Tensions And Treatment Of Blacks By Secondary And Primary Sourcing1430 Words   |  6 Pagesblacks and other races in their traditional positions, as they were during the Old South, by turning blacks against each other, implementing class systems as depicted in â€Å"Good Negro - Bad Negro†. The social class ranking system was set in place by whites to bring divide among blacks. African Americans of high-ranking were seen as those whom lived in middle-class areas, and shared similar job titles as their white counterparts, while low-ranking African Americans were those whom lived in low-incomeRead MoreUrban Gentrification and Urban Morphology2527 Words   |  11 Pagesdistricts such as Islington as her example. On the other hand, Smith and Williams (1986, p.1) define gentrification as â€Å"the rehabilitation of working class and derelict housing and the consequent transformation of an area into a middle-class neighbourhood.† Whilst Hamnett (2003, p.2402) builds on Glass’s definition of gentrification as a process involving class connotations and offers a more comprehensive definition incorporating economic views when he defines gentrification as a â€Å"social and spatial manifestation

Monday, December 30, 2019

United States And Mexico Have Different Types Of Economic...

United States and Mexico have different types of economic indicators. An economic indicator a statistic used to measure future trends in a nation s economy. For instance, the social and economic statistics distributed by authorize sources, for example, U.S. government divisions are pointers. Some popular economic indicators that will be discussed in the paper are, gross domestic product (GDP), inflation, population, and standard of living. Each of these indicators is categories under leading, lagging, and coincident indicators. Leading economic indicator offers us some assistance with assessing where the economy is going. They foretell what is coming, such as moving from a top stage into a withdrawal, before it really happens. Lagging†¦show more content†¦Nominal GDP of $17.4 trillion. Although there is a notable income disparity with the United States, Mexico’s per capita GDP is relatively high by global standards, and falls within the World Bank’s upper-middl e income category (Villarreal, 2015, p.2) (Villarreal, 2015, p.1) . According to Villarreal, â€Å"Trends in Mexico’s GDP growth generally follow U.S. economic trends, as shown in Figure 2, but with higher fluctuations. Mexico’s economy is highly dependent on manufacturing exports to the United States and approximately 80% of Mexico’s exports are destined for the United States. After modest GDP growth of 2.1% in 2014, Mexico’s GDP growth is forecast to grow 2.7% to 3.2% in 2015 and around 3.5% in 2016.23 The country’s outlook will likely remain closely tied to that of the United States, despite Mexico’s efforts to diversify trade,† (2015, p.11). In the United States and Mexico, in 2014, GDP was nearly at the same growth rate. In the future, I think both countries rate will increase. Another indicator that makes Mexico and the United States so different is inflation. Inflation is also referred to consumer price index. The disinflationa ry process in Mexico has led to low inflation rates, close to those recorded by its main trading partner, the United States (Carrasco, Ferreiro, 2013, p.350). Consumer costs in the United States expanded 0.5 percent year-on-year in November of 2015, up from

Saturday, December 21, 2019

The Problem Of Local Police - 868 Words

Description of the Problem Local police are being overly co-opt by federal law enforcement agencies. They are directing too many resources toward protecting the nation’s borders and other federal duties. It is a belief held by some that local police are becoming too militaristic in nature by using military-style weapons, tactics, training, uniforms, and heavy equipment. This notion makes local police no longer a benefit for the community. A number of attacks on American soil have demonstrated this nation’s vulnerability to both foreign and domestic terrorist. The Federal Bureau of Investigations defines terrorism as the unlawful use of force against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government or its population to further political or social objectives. Race, Trust, and Police Legitimacy According to Horowitz, research consistently shows that minorities are more likely than whites to view law enforcement with suspicion and distrust. Minorities frequently report that the police single them out unreasonably. They believe it is because of their race or ethnicity. How the public views law enforcement on the lawfulness and legitimacy of their duty are an important criterion for judging policing in society. Lawfulness means that the police follow and perform their duties with constitutional, statutory, and professional standards. Legitimacy is the public s willingness to recognize police authority within society. (Horowitz, 2007) The racial and ethnic minority’sShow MoreRelatedCommunity Policing and Problem Solving1135 Words   |  5 PagesCommunity Policing and Problem Solving Policing John K. Forrest II CJS/210 August 15, 2010 Travis Coldwell Community Policing and Problem Solving Policing When police departments and crime rates of the past are examined there are some apologist who believe that America would be in a better law enforcement situation provide the policies of the past we put back into use. With the public becoming more technologically advanced and criminal’s awareness of prosecution avoidance, communityRead MoreAfter The 9/11 Attack, Many Agencies DidnT Know What To1630 Words   |  7 Pagesorder for everything to go out smoothly federal agencies will need the help of local law enforcement because they will be the first responders on the crime scene when something bad happens. Local law enforcement usually have it concerns with preventing or solving crimes such as burglary, theft, robbery, and homicide crimes, these crimes usually have an impact on the local community, but when future terror threats local law enforcement will have to reorganize adapt to the policing strategies of theRead MoreIt Comes To Light That Police Departments Across Th e States1741 Words   |  7 Pageslight that police departments across the states play an important role in fighting and preventing terrorism. They are being trained to learn and investigate local terrorist threats throughout the United States, and to make sure the community is protected from such harm. In to do so police officers will have to extend they stay in the community and be involved in such activities and improve the community trust, another thing they will have to do is to build a partnership with other local businessesRead MoreFice Of Community Policing Essay1609 Words   |  7 Pagescommunity policing focuses on crime and social disorder through the delivery of police services that includes aspects of traditional law enforcement, as well as prevention, problem-solving, community engagement, and partnerships. The community policing model balances reactive responses to calls for service with proactive problem-solving centered on the causes of crime and disorder. Communi ty policing requires police and citizens to join together as partners in the course of both identifying and effectivelyRead MorePolice History Paper1117 Words   |  5 Pagesthey were in the 1800s. Peel established the Metropolitan Police when he served as Home Secretary of England. Since Sir Robert Peel introduced his principles of policing in the early 1800s, our country has continued to follow his ideas of effective policing. Community policing is based on Peels concept of prevention. According to one of Peel’s principals, the real key for policing is The police are the people and the people are the police. Peel believed that prevention of crime could be accomplishedRead MoreLaw Enforcement History: Historical Development of Police Agencies and Their Jurisdictions1017 Words   |  4 PagesThe Historical Development of Police Agencies and Their Jurisdictions: An Analysis Man is cruel and competitive. For these reasons, man often times wrongs others in society. And for this reason, it is necessary to have a law enforcement agency, whether local, state-based, or federal. In the absence of the rule of law, society would not be able to function, and man must make a pact that, in order to live and be protected within society, he must obey these laws. Police agencies often times serve asRead MoreThe Impact Of Terrorism On Economic Development And Reducing The Level Of Industrialization Essay1533 Words   |  7 Pagesin the America to refer to the police. Police officers play a significant role in the process of fighting terrorism. In order to realize the role of law enforcement officials, the government of the United States came up with a number of strategies which include: Initiation of Training Programs It involves the familiarization of terrorism-related aspects. The teaching helps the officers to recognize the strength of a danger thus find ways of overcoming them. The police officers are also introduced toRead MoreThe Eras of Policing Are Political, Reform and Community Problem Solving600 Words   |  3 PagesReform Era, and The Community Problem Solving Era. A lot has changed in the way that policing works over the years in the United States. During the Political Era the police departments were typically established and controlled by local government agencies. The Police being ran by the Local Government means that the State and Federal government did not interfere too much. Only well established families or local political groups would get the local elected positions. Police also did a lot more duringRead MoreLaw Enforcement Today Paper1056 Words   |  5 PagesISSUES OF POLICE DEPARTMENTS IN TODAY’S SOCIETY BY: HOLLY HANDLON February 20th, 2012 The issues that our police departments face in today’s society consist of corrupt police departments, publicity, operating expenses, and constant training to meet the guidelines set by court decisions. Corruption and brutality scandals have severely tarnished the public’s faith in the police. From the killings and brutalizing of citizens in New York City to the widespread corruption in the Los AngelesRead MoreWhy Hiring More Police Officers916 Words   |  4 Pagesseveral reasons why hiring more police officers does not reduce crime rates. First, if we increased our nation’s police force, the number of actual police officers per 10,000 citizens would continue to be insignificant because the police officer’s presence is already distributed very thin. Second, in spite of a large and noticeable police existence some criminals are not discouraged from committing crimes. Third, many crimes cannot be successfully stopped by police patrol because they are committed

Friday, December 13, 2019

Non Parametric and Chi-Square Distribution Free Essays

Individual Paper #3: Non parametric and Chi-square distribution Brief Summary: I worked for a logistic company. My major responsibility was in charge of the storage and transportation of parts of cars between two areas, which are about 1400 miles apart. One of my jobs is collecting the goods from suppliers and arranging the trucks to deliver them. We will write a custom essay sample on Non Parametric and Chi-Square Distribution or any similar topic only for you Order Now There are five truck drivers, and each of them is assigned to deliver on each weekday throughout a whole year. Before the delivery, we will check the quality of the goods and Make sure that there are no damaged goods. When arriving at the destination, the staff will check the goods again and record the damaged goods that occurred in transit. At the end of every month, we will pay for the compensation according to the number of the defective goods. In order to reduce the number of the damaged goods during the delivery, I want to identify the reasons why they are damaged. In this study, I want to find out that whether some drivers are more prone to make the goods damaged during their delivery. Variable to be measured: Two variables are to be measured. The first variable is just the five truck drivers, and the second one is the quality of the goods after the delivery. Determination of Population: Population in this case is defined as the all goods delivered from Tianjin area to Guangzhou area. Statistical method: To analyze relationship between the two variables above which are both nominal in terms of data type, I decide to use Chi-squared test of a contingency table. Sample Selection: The information about delivery is recorded in our computer system, including the delivery date, name of the driver, the number of damaged goods and so on. I take out the data about 52 weeks during the previous year and record them into the following table: | Quality| | Truck Driver| Passed| Damaged| Total| Driver A| | | | Driver B| | | | Driver C| | | | Driver D| | | | Driver E| | | | Total| | | | Hypothesis: The objective is to describe whether there is a relationship between the five drivers and the number of damaged goods. The null hypothesis will specify that there is no relationship between the two variables: H0 : The two variables are independent The alternative hypothesis specifies one variable affects the other, expressed as: H1 : The two variables are dependent Use the formula: ?2=i=1k(fi-ei)2ei ? =(r-1) (c-1) which calculates the test statistic. Or use the Excel by importing the data into the function of Data Analysis Plus, Contingency Table. Then I could acquire chi-squared Stat, p-value. The number of degrees of freedom v=(r-1)(c-1)=(5-1)(2-1)=4. If I employ a 5% significance level, the rejection region is X2 X2 a, v = X2 . 05, 4 = 9. 49 Comparing the results, if the p-value is greater than 9. 49, there is not enough evidence to infer that there is a relationship between the five drivers and the number of damaged goods; if the p-value is not greater than 9. 49, I can reject the null hypothesis in favor of the alternative, which means there is a relationship between the five drivers and the number of damaged goods. So I can reduce the number of damaged goods through improving the drivers’ conditions. How to cite Non Parametric and Chi-Square Distribution, Papers

Thursday, December 5, 2019

Audit Theory Accounting Work

Question: Discuss about theAudit Theoryfor Accounting Work. Answer: In the present case, Sally is a junior trainee who is involved into banking as well as accounting work. The accountability is of Max and Betty instead of Sally. Though Sally is responsible for doing all works related to banking and accounts however he is only a trainee and the management should always be responsible for reviewing the work of the junior trainee. The management should be reviewing whether the customers are giving payments on time, whether contracts are made with the customers on time or not. In the past 3 years, the management has only concentrated in growing their business. However, the reason for lower cash flow has yet not been diagnosed by them. The client statements have not been issued to the customers for the last four months (Horngren, 2011). This has resulted in lower cash receipts from the customers. The entries made are not in the manner it should have been. Proper journals should have been passed so that at a glance the data can be reviewed (Hopper Bui, 20 16). This clearly shows a poor control of the management and that the attitude towards the functionality of the staff is reluctant. Though the operational part and gaining sales is important for the business, however, to maintain the same the accounting part is equally important. There should be proper review structure in the management of the business. The duties of Max and Betty should be segregated. Work load of Sally should also be lessened. Betty or Max should take up the responsibility of reviewing the work that is whether the billing is done in proper time or not. Timelines should be set to complete a particular set of work. As in the invoice should be raised within 2 days of completion of service. Proper follow up process should be initiated to ensure that the payment is received on time. Proper accounts should be reviewed that is profit and loss account should be reviewed on a monthly basis to ensure the company is earning money to have a proper gross margin and a net profit margin. The customer wise data analysis should be done and a comparative statement should be made wherein the management can view and compare the sales and duration of time for receipt of payment. In this manner, the company will be able to maintain a positive cash flow also (Dru ry, 2013). The management will be able to devote its time to high paying customer too instead of doing small jobs which take more time and are paying less. The part timer who assists Betty with the sales should be allocated with the sending of contracts and invoices which are generated by Sally. So that the movement time of Sally is reduced and Sally gets more time in preparation of contracts and making statements of clients (Vause, 2009). In this case, even Betty will be able to know from which customer the payment needs to be collected. Thus the collection process will also improve as the payment will start coming at the earlier time as the statements will be submitted on time to the customers. References Drury, C. M 2013, Management and cost accounting, Springer. Hopper, T., Bui, B 2016, Has management accounting research been critical?. Management Accounting Research, vol. 31, pp. 10-30. Horngren, C 2011, Cost accounting, Frenchs Forest, N.S.W.: Pearson Australia. Vause, B 2009, Guide to Analysing Companies, Bloomberg Press